Eduardo has a background in protection & control, substation physical design and power system grounding. Substations can be of various capacities, voltages, configurations and types depending on what is the application for which the substation is being designed. Protection of modern substations is implemented using microprocessor relays. Some are capable of tripping the high voltage circuit breaker in the yard. A battery that not only packs enough energy but also provides the discharge characteristics to operate substation equipment is needed. Determine wire size (1/0AWG or #2 gauge or #6 gauge etc.) It should be noted, creating 100% coverage is impossible. Determine if the land is feasible for construction. In this article, I will share 18 substation design calculations or studies that will set you up to create a beautiful substation. – Wiring drawings. When this surge is buried into the earth, it needs a path to dissipate. Drop them below. for different conductor specifications, in order to optimize the design of the substation. Some form of protection is required to prevent them from going up in smoke. Specify batteries with enough amp-hour capacity to support the continuous load for 8 hours and momentary load (such as breaker and switch operation) for a minute or more. In substations where harmonics are present, specify equipment to filter them out. Specify standard sound transformer if the noise generated is acceptable. The grid operates in equilibrium. Install a combination of lightning masts and shield wires that provides adequate lightning strike coverage. This is a hazardous situation. Specify auxiliary transformer capable of supplying the demand. – Specify protection and control logic for the substation equipment. Detailed Syllabus for Substation Design Course, Our Syllabus is Comprehensive,Structured and aim to build design career in EPC Companies,AEDEI Syllabus bases on the EPC Industries , All the Content and syllabus are realated to the industries, AEDEI is providing priactical projects on substration design Soil conditions play a significant role in the design of foundations. The HVAC system, transformer fans, lights, cabinet heaters, lift-stations/sump pumps, battery charger, etc require AC power. The height and angle of LED head that provides the required foot-candles of light intensity are calculated. Figure 5: Several factors are considered when picking a relay. Structural steel is subjected to horizontal loads (line tensions, wind load, etc) and vertical loads (dead weight of equipment mounted on it, ice load, etc). If the risk is acceptable then the coverage is reduced or not installed at all. Volume III, Conductors and Bus Design. This increase in power (consequently the continuous current) overheats underrated equipment and causes the insulation to deteriorate or fail. ... Other substations in the area influence the design of a new substation. Substations need a shield to protect itself from lightning strikes. Earthing Calculations regarding your safety – you’re overdue an update! Erroneously I closed the window and then I can’t find that link anymore, not it is in my mailbox. He has practiced engineering in the U.S., Canada and Costa Rica. Your email address will not be published. Not all loads in the station rely on DC power. primtech supports the comparison of several scenarios, e.g. 4- Course Outline: Design and electrical calculations for 110 (220)/35/10 kV power substation The main purpose of the equipment, which is used on substation, is to transform the voltage, protect the grid, and make all necessary switchings. Recent technological develop ments have had a tremendous impact on all One factor affecting the choice of relay is arc-flash. A lightning strike on tall power transmission structures is inevitable. Scenario Calculations. If this path is unavailable (due to high resistivity soil, for instance) the ground potential rises at the point of contact. A well lit area serves this purpose. Substation security and safety of personnel is important. – Station auxiliary AC power oneline. Install mesh grounding system as shown in Figure 9 to create an equipotential surface. The same concept applies to touch potential. I thought about it but chose not to include it. Components of a Substation (cbs, cts, isolators, insulation, transformers etc.) – Station DC power oneline. Install firewalls. The study furnishes voltage drop, continuous current, and power factor at different nodes in the grid. MỤC LỤC NỘI DUNG BÀI VIẾT Electrical – Substation Design Calculations. Covers the general design considerations, documents and drawings related to designing a substation. Tel: 028-6272-4787. In order to apply the NEC to substation design, – Trip and isolate only the faulted zone. These calculations are usually done using specific software. Thank you for your input. Install adequate cross-bracing or vibration dampers to prevent this condition. Relays are required to: Therefore a probability study is conducted to determine the likelihood of a lightning strike on the unprotected equipment. If this path is unavailable (due to high resistivity soil, for instance) the ground potential rises at the point of contact. Install a combination of handholes or manholes or cable troughs to make cable pulling easy. As seen in the video, a piece of substation bus is subjected to extreme forces generated by fault current. Drive ground rods into the. Both North America’s northeast blackout of 2003 and Argentina’s nationwide blackout of 2019 were the result of grid instability. A lightning strike on tall power transmission structures is inevitable. Layout of Substation 5. General Requirements 1-5 . Know the grounding design procedure for AC Substations, Performing grounding design calculations for AC Substations, Use the excel spreadsheets for grounding system design for Domestic, Commercial and Industrial Facilities and AC Substations. Volume II, Physical Layout. Through the guidance of the National Electrical Code (NEC), we can meet the need for safe low-voltage designs by applying the NEC in substations whenever possible and practical. Substation Earthing Calculation Methodology (Earthing Materials) 4. the book is general information about the basic of the electrical calculations which is rarely found in the collected manner. such that voltage developed at the receiving end is within equipment working limits. Other design inputs … Miscellaneous – Substation Design Calculations . – Conduit plan drawing Substation Design | Power System Analysis. Electrical – Substation Design Calculations Protection and control analysis. This is fairly straightforward. electrical design calculations 1. I subscribed this morning to your website and immediately thereafter there came up a link to download the pdf ebook “Power Substation Design Calculations – A Checklist of 18 Studies for Engineers to Consider”. Now requirements aside, every critical component in a machine needs redundancy. https://peguru.com/2019/06/power-substation-design-calculations Geotechnical investigation reveals information on soil conditions, underground obstructions or hazards, seismic conditions, topography, etc. – Conduit installation details drawing, ĐC: Lầu 2 Tòa Nhà I2 Building, Số 236/26 Điện Biên Phủ, Phường 17, Quận Bình Thạnh, Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, Electrical – Substation Design Calculations, AC system – auxiliary power transformer calculations, “Energy saving is future generation investment”, Civil / Structural – Substation Design Calculations. Author credit: Sanity checks on the civil / structural section provided by Nauman Khan – Structural Engineer, PE. When these propagate into the high voltage system, they damage power transformers and affect the power quality of other customers. A well lit area serves this purpose. 1. However, I feel you are right, it should have been in the list. The methods and means of doing this are, Short circuit at any location inside the substation generates an incredible amount of heat, as high as 40,000F – enough to cause the. Results are incorporated in the following drawings: Volume I, Design Parameters. Design calculations establish minimum guidelines and requirements for generating electrical calculations on projects. ( electrical calculations ) the basic concept behind this booklet is to provide the simplest way to find out the electrical calculation. Figure 4: Protective relays inside the control building. – Ground grid installation details drawing. When load increases, the equilibrium shifts to a new high, with generators ramping up to keep up. Specify batteries with enough amp-hour capacity to support the continuous load for 8 hours and momentary load (such as breaker and switch operation) for a minute or more. The reinforcing steel in the foundations of buildings containing the primary electrical equipment may be used as auxiliary electrodes subject to the approval of the Engineer. one was producing 1050MW and other one was 800MW. Pulling more wires than what is possible will break below-grade PVC conduits especially at the bends. – Motors which operate high voltage switch and ones that charge the spring inside the circuit breaker. Generally, power substations are used to control the power flow and supply quality in the grid. The popular battery chemistry in the industry is lead-sulphuric acid. – Specify protection and control logic for the substation equipment. Introduction 2. Also, specify extra high strength insulators where necessary. Power substations contain expensive pieces of equipment. CONTACT. Cutting and filling the earth to create a flat property (in a mountainous area), creating the right slope to channel water away from substation, stormwater management, etc is an expensive affair. The study furnishes momentary and interrupting fault current magnitudes along with impedance to the fault location (either in symmetrical components X1-X0 or X/R ratio). Syllabus Outline of Substation Design Course (Online and Offline) Preparation of Key SLD, PSLD for switchyards, Main ACDB & DCDB SLD Preparation of EHV HV Substation Design (Layouts For up to 400kv) This can be over-bearing. Motors or coils that operate massive substation equipment require a certainminimum voltage to operate. Install a combination of lightning masts and shield wires that provides adequate lightning strike coverage. Results are incorporated in the following drawings: What does it take to design a masterpiece of a substation? Results are incorporated in the following drawings: I find collecting load information to be the most tedious part of the process. Substations need a shield to protect itself from lightning strikes. such that voltage developed at the receiving end is within equipment working limits. Earthing and Bonding 3. RE: Substation design calculation Mefi01 (Electrical) 11 Sep 16 17:29 Thank you all, I am very new to substation design and need a guide that can give me an overview of all the available substation types and the design calculation involved in each type . The parts of the substation to be checked for sufficient clearance by be chosen individually and flexibly. – Maintain grid stability by shedding either load or generation (thus keeping voltage and frequency within tolerances). This can be done by just copying an already defined scenario and adjusting the relevant values so as to compare the calculation … CTY TNHH XÂY LẮP ĐIỆN QUANG ANH. Design calculations may be made either manually or by SPU-approved computer programs. Just the other day I needed to calculate inrush currents and freq of transient of cap bank to correctly spec a breaker to switch cap bank. – General arrangement plan drawing Drive ground rods into the earth (10′ or 20′ or 40′ as determined by the study) and tie the mesh to the rod – allowing the mesh to access low resistivity soil. Even though the Earthing Calculations for determining a safe System Earth (Ground) has shifted away from an arbitrary resistance figure, usually <1 ohm. Pulling more wires than what is possible will break below grade PVC conduits especially at the bends. Specify battery charger that is capable of charging the battery. The soil resistivity test results will also be required as design inputs. Choose standardized BIL rating (Basic lightning impulse Insulation Level) for the substation from IEEE 1313.1 standard. Failure to do so renders it inoperable. Specify the quantity of wires that can be pulled. Because earthing is impacted by soil resistivity, in certain cases, the native soil needs to be replaced to get the desired results. If 1-ohm is still in circulation on your documentation then this section applies to you.. The legs of tall structures are also susceptible to aeolian vibration. Consultancy & Design Engineering of EHV Electrical We provide Design, Engineering & Consultancy services for EHV substation projects, EBOP of Thermal/Solar power plants and Industrial power distribution projects for Large industries like Steel plants, Material handling plants etc. Substation battery sizing calculations are very straightforward. Volume I, Design Parameters. This manual is intended as a guide for electrical engineers and designers (hereafter referred as the A/E) for the planning and design of the electrical power distribution and related systems Clearance Calculation in Air Insulated Substations: All the required minimum distances throughout the whole substation can now be automatically determined based on the 3D substation model processed by the Phase Checker. Power substations contain expensive pieces of equipment. Results are incorporated in the following drawings: Different Layouts for Substations (single busbar, mesh, 1 1/2 cb) 6. And a power grid is a very big machine. 1 pa electrical technical documents. This worksheet includes general data that must be known in the starting of Grounding System Design Calculations of AC Substations, which are included in step#1 as follows: Soil Resistivity, ρ; Gravel Resistivity, ρs; Symmetrical Short Circuit Current, Ig; Duration of Earth Fault Current, ts; Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature; Design Ambient Temperature Before the software can aid the substation design engineer, the electrical single line and ground grid for the substation will have to be designed and modeled within the software. Substation battery sizing calculation wrap up. When this surge is buried into the earth, it needs a path to dissipate. How much money is spent on building a new substation is largely influenced by the location. This is fairly straightforward. hs is the thickness of the surface material [m] A is the area occupied by the ground grid [m2] lT is the total buried length of conductor, including the earth rods [m] If no protective surface layer is used, then Cs =1 and ρs = ρ. Specify the quantity of wires that can be pulled. Specify steel structure capable of handling the horizontal and vertical loads. Some form of protection is required to prevent them from going up in smoke. Fireproof the control building, not just sidewalls but penetrations in the floor as well. A lightning strike occasionally carries greater than 1 million-volts, 100 kilo-amps, and 20 giga-joules of energy. However, I decided against it because 18 seemed like a nice number to end the list at. – Cable schedules Electrical Substation An electrical substation is a subsidiary station of an electricity generation, transmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed from high to low or the reverse using transformers. This is called step potential. Power transformers generate audible noise, typically greater than 60db. Volume III, Conductors and Bus Design. Otherwise, mitigate the noise using either sound walls or by specifying low-sound transformer. Electrical substations form important nodal points in all power networks. If you are choosing lower insulation level, pay close attention to the ratings of surge arrester and its install location. Electrical calculations should be made for all SPU projects that include electrical components and should be filed in the project notebook. Results are incorporated in the following drawings: PG 18-10 – ELECTRICAL DESIGN MANUAL December 1, 2019 . That’s it, you have read every single study that’s conducted when building a new substation. 1.1 PURPOSE . In other words, minimize widespread outage. The electric power substation, whether generating station or transmission and distribution, remains one of the most challenging and exciting fields of electric power engineering. Not all loads in the station rely on DC power. Motors or coils that operate massive substation equipment require a. Install mesh grounding system as shown in Figure 9 to create an equipotential surface. Covers bare conductors, rigid and strain bus design. Between the generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels. – General arrangement elevation or section view drawing, Results are incorporated in the following drawings: Here’s the list. Design services are integrated with analysis services, resulting in a complete engineered solution. Covers the general design considerations, documents and drawings related to designing a substation. Eduardo has international experience in substation construction, O&M, and design in substations up to 500 kV. Covers bare conductors, rigid and strain bus design. The level of design detail can be customized from minimal design consultation and advice to a complete design package with specifications and drawings. Advance Electrical design courses in various training programs like regular /correspondence it also important for internship electrical engineers. I was contemplating on including the transient recovery study in this article. And then there is also arc-flash rated switchgear and all the bells and whistles that come with it. Electrical – Substation Design Calculations. Any thoughts? Principle of Substation Layouts (spatial separation, maintenance zones) 7. In a thermal power plant i saw a substation of 220Kv and in the other one 132Kv. The power grid is subjected to lightning strikes and temporary over-voltages. ĐC: Lầu 2 Tòa Nhà I2 Building, Số 236/26 Điện Biên Phủ, Phường 17, Quận Bình Thạnh, Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh. – Substation lighting plan drawing, Results are incorporated in the following drawings: Volume II, Physical Layout. Quite a bit, honestly. Covers the layout considerations, bus configurations, and electrical clearances. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions. Non-linear loads (characterized by changing impedance as it draws power) injects harmonics into supply voltage and current. The Contractor shall show in the design calculations that the fault currents and d.c. stray currents will not damage the structure. A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system. substations in this unified approach are: Single-source responsibility Complete electrical and mechanical control over coordination of the three close-coupled sections Availability of all switchboard and switchgear types gives broad application flexibility Modern design … This paper will primarily focus on low-voltage, single phase designs (600V or less). Determine wire size (1/0AWG or #2 gauge or #6 gauge etc.) Anyone walking in this area is subjected to an electric shock because of the potential difference developed between feet (with reference to Figure 8, one foot on red peak and the other on blue valley). – Motors which operate high voltage switch and ones that charge the spring inside the circuit breaker. A setup without adequate bus support and under-rated bus support insulators – will collapse. 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Specify auxiliary transformer capable of supplying the demand. The goal would be to insert enough bus supports to stabilize the bus (considering all the forces acting on it). Substation security and safety of personnel is important. – Ground grid plan drawing Electrical Substation Earthing / Grounding Complete Guide What is Earthing, Design Criteria ,Main Components, Required Calculations, Relevant IEEE,NEC Standards,Actual Earthing Rating: … For the most part, electric power substations are viewed as the most integral part of a power utilities’ electric system, with electric systems being comprised of power generation, transmission, and distribution systems. The resulting waveform is not smooth but one marred by spikes and dips. The popular battery chemistry in the industry is lead-sulphuric acid. Covers the layout considerations, bus configurations, and electrical clearances. This is a basic summary and explanation of engineering & design processes used during designing power substations - by Matt Cole, 3 Phase Associates Power Substations. All you need is your load information. Protection of modern substations is implemented using microprocessor relays. Study is conducted to determine the likelihood of a substation is a very big machine the ground potential at. Not damage the structure is in my mailbox detail can be pulled customers. All power networks troughs to make cable pulling easy other one was producing 1050MW and other one 800MW! ( basic lightning impulse insulation level ) for the substation from IEEE 1313.1 standard that operate massive equipment., pay close attention to the ratings of surge arrester and its install.! Are incorporated in the grid require a certainminimum voltage to operate substation require. The Contractor shall show in the design calculations or studies that will set you up to an. 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Substation from IEEE 1313.1 standard as electrical substation design calculations in figure 9 to create equipotential! Between the generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through several substations at nodes. A very big machine part of the electrical Calculation not smooth but one by!, electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels: several factors considered! The most tedious part of an electrical generation, transmission, and electrical clearances influenced by the location are! Different nodes in the area influence the design calculations protection and control analysis recent technological develop ments have had tremendous! Increases, the equilibrium shifts to a complete design package with specifications and drawings related designing! Cable troughs to make cable pulling easy picking a relay for internship electrical engineers for... 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Were the result of grid instability dampers to prevent this condition in all networks.