four techniques of the cognitive interview. One major weakness with interference theory is the interference effects are more evident in laboratory-based settings using various memory-based tasks. This demonstrated the limited capacity of the visuospatial sketchpad but also how it differs from the Phonological loop which is responsible for auditory tasks. Decks: As Memory Multi Store Model, As Memory Working Memory Model, As Memory Types Of Long Term Memory, And more! Including memories of when the event occurred, the people, objects and behaviours involved. AQA Psychology for A Level Year 1 & AS - Student Book R. Liddle, C. Flanagan. Unlearning theory however suggests the new learning replaces the old learning. In their key study, 45 students were shown several films of road traffic incidents and then given a questionnaire to describe the accident and answer a series of questions about their observation. (different people were given slightly different questions). Can be in the form of a misleading question or a post event discussion, a question which, because of the way it is phrased, suggests a certain answer. However, she was still able to create semantic memories supporting the theory that they are separate. feelings, emotions, being drunk or not. The first question to ask yourself when revising for GCSE psychology is which exam board am I studying? The unit code is 7181/7182 and covers both AS & A-level. This includes performance, physiological arousal and also cognitive anxiety too. 4 conditions to learn and recall: -supporting evidence (godden and baddely + carter and cassaday), - you can learn something in one room and retrieve it in another room, context dependent cues arent that important in recall, The ability of people to remember the details of events, such as accidents and crimes, which they themselves have observed. This is because the recollection of one small memory may act as a retrieval cue for other important memories. Research evidence by Glanzer et al demonstrated support for short-term and long-term memory being different stores. This supports theories for 3 distinct stores of long-term memory. The weakness with research into misleading information and post-even discussion is that such studies are laboratory studies and therefore lack ecological validity and realism. Yuille and shutshall, good ecological validity, limitations of research on anxiety effecting EWT. Keppel and underwood (1962) demonstrated proactive interference. The same was true vice versa too with better recall shown when the learning context remained the same as encoding. The articulatory control process (inner voice) is linked to speech production and is used to rehearse and store verbal information from the phonological store through a form of maintenance rehearsal. Possible exam questions for eyewitness testimony and misleading information include: Deffenbacher reviewed 21 studies finding the stress-performance relationship followed an inverted U as proposed by the Yerkes-Dodson Curve. Also, misleading questions, as illustrated, tended to have less of an effect in real-life situations compared to Loftus & Palmer’s laboratory study on misleading questions and stress may be a stronger mitigating factor in recall. This highlights clearly how post-event discussion can cause people to mistakenly recall incorrect information. This includes our memories of learned skills. Considering the millions spent on advertising this presents a big problem but also provides marketers with practical ways to overcome this. To know the dates for your GCSE exams for 2020, you firstly need to identify which exam board you are studying for your subject. The prefrontal cortex is seen to relate to short-term memory while the hippocampus is associated with longterm memory, supporting the model’s idea of different memory stores. Recall the event in different orders such as in reverse order or at different stages. Abernethy (1940) found that after participants had learnt various material, they showed greater difficulty with recall when they were tested by an unfamiliar teacher in an unfamiliar room compared to a familiar teacher and familiar room. Example Answer for Question 08 Paper 1: A Level Psychology, June 2017 (AQA) Exam technique advice Working Memory Model: Example Answer Video for A Level SAM 2, Paper 1, Q7 (4 Marks) Research into retrieval failure and cue dependent forgetting has real-world applications particularly in the search for missing people and reconstructing the last known whereabouts. With free recall … -weapon focus effect may jest be due to surprise of what they see rather than anxiety. Research evidence supports the case for their being 3 different memory stores associated with the LTM. They allow you to figuratively travel back in time to remember the event that took place at that particular time and place. Long-term memory may not be a single store either as Schachter et al proposed 4 different types of long-term memory stores. being in the same room where you learnt the answers to a test and then taking the test in this room. They have to retrieved consciously with effort. Cognitive Psychology – Memory. One critical question varied between conditions with one group asked how fast the vehicles were going when they “hit” each other while other groups had verbs implying different degree’s of a collision such as “bumped, smashed, contacted, collided”. A possible weakness is the control group of officers may have been demotivated due to not receiving training which may have affected their motivation levels and performance in the standard interview negatively. Decks: Misleading Information, Anxiety, And more! A Level Psychology – Types of Memory. How To Revise For GCSE Psychology Step-by-Step, Chapter 8: Issues and Debates in Psychology, Outline the multi-store model of memory (6 marks), Evaluate the multi-store memory model (6 marks AS, 8-10 marks A-level), Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory (12 marks AS, 16 marks A-level), Explain what normative social influence is (4 marks), Explain what informational social influence is (4 marks), Outline and evaluate normative and informational social influence explanations of conformity (12 marks for AS and 16 marks for A-level), Outline the working memory model (6 marks), Describe the strengths of the working memory model (4), Describe the weaknesses of the working memory model (4), Discuss the working memory model outlining the strengths and weaknesses (12 marks AS, 16 marks A-level), What is meant by proactive interference and retroactive interference? When information comes into our memory system (from sensory input), it needs to be changed into a form that the system can cope with, so that it can be stored.Think of this as similar to changing your money into a different currency when you travel from one country to another. The model is also unable to explain how musical memory works as participants may be able to listen to instrumental music without impeding their performances in other acoustic tasks. They were given a free recall to recall as many class mates as they could. Proactive interference can explain this as earlier consonants entered the long-term memory and thus interfered with the formation of new memories. A Level Psychology – Modelling Memory. Jacobs found that the mean digit span was 9.3, research on capacity (george miller- chunking). Participants were tasked with recalling consonant trigrams after varying intervals where they were tasked with counting backwards in threes. Although ethical issues are raised due to the participants being deceived into thinking what they were watching was real; the findings suggest leading questions may have some impact in laboratory settings but in real life, other factors (such as arousal, stress, concentration or motivation) may mitigate for this and override their effects. 7 Decks - 41 Cards - 5 Learners. This suggests that the weapon focus effect is due to unusualness rather than anxiety. Understanding how interference works can offer advertisers real-world applications for marketing campaigns as they attempt to build brands. AQA A-Level Psychology Revision: Memory Ella Warwick 2. Three of the stories were true while one was false and it included being lost in a department store when aged 5 and an elderly lady rescuing them. Memories that are episodic are usually based on events that occur in peoples lives however over time they move over to semantic memory as the event’s association diminishes and the memory becomes “knowledge” based. long term memory store of our knowledge of the world. Although ethical issues are raised due to the participants being deceived into thinking what they were watching was real; the findings suggest leading questions may have some impact in laboratory settings but in real life, other factors (such as arousal, stress, concentration or motivation) may mitigate for this and override their effects. Brain scans have shown 3 distinct areas being active with the hippocampus and other parts of the temporal lobe such as the frontal lobe associated with episodic memory. The pre-frontal cortex of the brain is linked to the initial coding of episodic memories and consolidation and storage associated with the neocortex. However, the use of students may have been a confounding variable in itself rather than leading questions as they are not representative of the range of ages in the normal population and therefore the sample lacks population validity also. Topic 3: Attachment. Question paper (Modified A3 36pt) (A-level): Paper 3 Issues and options in psychology - June 2018 Published 1 May 2019 | PDF | 194 KB. -suffered anterograde amnesia (cannot form new memories) after having surgery. Possible exam questions for the accuracy of eyewitness testimony and anxiety include: The cognitive interview technique is a method used primarily by the police to aid eyewitnesses in recalling information more accurately. The episodic buffer has limited capacity and also maintains time-sequencing recording events as they happen and transferring this information into long-term memory. Memory - AQA A Level Psychology Revision 1. Yuille & Cutshall’s study contradicts laboratory findings highlighting the importance of stress in eyewitness testimony. This would result in greater recall than being in a different room. A major strength of this model is the model’s predictions around memory which can be easily tested to verify whether it applies to human behaviour. Therefore we cannot conclusively say the procedural memory store is fully understood with any detail to generalise such a theory. Therefore the possibility of demand characteristics is very possible with such laboratory studies. Results found the cognitive interview gained 47% more facts overall compared to the standard interview and concluded it was beneficial for improving EWT. Information received is raw and unprocessed and the sensory register has a large capacity however the duration of storage is milliseconds unless given focused attention in which case it will move to the short-term memory store. This suggests there may be other components to the Central Executive which the Working Memory Model is unable to explain due to it being over-simplified in its theory. This was used to aid in the conviction of Danielle Jones killer as a reconstruction in 2001 prompted witnesses to recall her arguing with a man which later led to the conviction of her uncle through witness testimony. forgetting because one memory blocks another, causing one or both memories to be distorted or forgotten, older memories disrupt the recall of newer memories, degree of forgetting is greater when the memories are similar, newer memories disrupt the recall of older memories already stored. Also, it is not fully understood how the link between working memory and longterm memory works and this is not fully explained either. The use of questionnaires is also another possible weakness as questions can be easily misunderstood by participants or misinterpreted without clarification. Therefore it makes it difficult to generalise the findings externally beyond the laboratory settings or understand exactly how much day-to-day forgetting can be credited to interference or even forgetting in general. Psychology (8182) PapaCambridge provides Psychology (8182) GCSE Latest Past Papers and resources that includes syllabus, specimens, question papers, marking schemes, resource booklet, FAQ’s, Teacher’s resources and a lot more.Past papers of Psychology (8182) are available from 2002 up to the latest session.It’s the guarantee of PapaCambridge that you will find the latest … However Christianson (1993) et al found contradicting evidence. There are 4 main exam boards used in the UK. Tulving (1973) called this the encoding-specificity principle; where recollection is affected if the context of recall is different from what it was when the memory was coded. -creates an increase of incorrect information: Kohnken found that while there is an 81% increase in correct information but a 61% increase in incorrect information. This shows support for the importance of context aiding the memory retrieval process. AQA Specification: The multi-store model of memory: sensory register, short-term memory and long-term memory. Semantic memory contains the knowledge, facts, concepts and meanings the individual has learnt e.g. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! Hope you guys enjoy this video! This was popularly accepted until Interference Theory offered another explanation. There are two main types of cue-dependent forgetting; context-dependent failure and state-dependent failure. swimming, reading or cycling and does not require conscious thought. Occurs when there is more than one witness to an event. Some participants may have deliberately done poorly in some situations or try harder in others due to how alcohol affects people in unpredictable ways. The sensory register is not under cognitive control and is the first storage system for incoming information. A response-bias explanation- wording of the question doesn't effect the memory but influences how they decide to answer. Ceraso (1967) suggested one possible explanation for RI was there was no actual loss of information but merely the wrong information was accessed as it had been moved. However, this in itself is likely to be difficult and purely based on a subjective measure in itself. - supporting evidence, for example baddely, peterson and peterson, Miller, -more than one type of STM: KF showed that his short term memory for digits was very poor when read out loud to himself, but it was much better when he was able to read the digits himself. Loftus and Palmer (1974) conducted various experiments measuring how leading information affected recall and is the primary research study you need to know as part of your revision. Procedural long-term memory is linked to the neocortex brain areas within the primary motor cortex, cerebellum and prefrontal cortex. The other is not consciously recalled and is known as “knowing how” memory, or procedural memory. However, he could not recollect how he had learnt this skill supporting the case for different stores between “knowing how” to do something and semantic knowledge-based memories or experience-based (episodic). Semantic memory may also relate to how certain objects work, their functions, appropriate behaviour in situations or abstract concepts such as language or mathematics. The intervening task (describing paintings) produced retroactive interference with participants struggling to recall their lists. McGeoch and McDonald, -artificial materials, lab studies use artificial tasks that wouldnt occur in real life, lacks ecological validity, a form of forgetting, it occurs when we don't have the necessary cues to access a memory. For example, if you remember the party on your 6th birthday, this is an episodic memory. They... Schools can qualify for all our resources for free. The multi-store memory model can be argued to be oversimplifying memory structures and processes. One major weakness is that in real life memories are created within contexts rather than within laboratory-based “free-recall” experiments which the multistore memory model is heavily based on. 2 Use your knowledge of psychology to describe how the factor you have identified in question 03.1 affects the accuracy of memory. It suggests that STM is a dynamic processor of different types of information using sub-units coordinated by a central decision-making system. Therefore episodic memory underpins semantic memory with episodic based experiences moving over to semantic memory over time. AQA A-level Psychology Exam Papers and Practice Questions 2017; Past Paper question Memory. Therefore the model is incomplete as an explanation which is a major weakness. Confusions often occur with similar sounding words as it is an acoustic store. For example, he noted that things com in 7s: there are seven notes on the musical scale, 7 days of the week, 7 deadly sins, and so on.suggesting that the capacity of the STM is around 7 items (plus or minus). When witnesses to real bank robberies were tested on recall, they found increased anxiety led to improvements in the accuracy of recall. When we refer to forgetting, we generally mean a persons inability to recall or recognise something that they had previously learned. Due to the ease of replication other studies have found similar findings showing the findings of Deffenbacher and Loftus are reliable. Anderson (2000) believed interference did play a role in forgetting but it was difficult to understand exactly how much. Recall the event from different points of view or perspectives of what others may have seen again to reduce the influence of an individuals schema on recall. Again this has limited capacity determined by the amount of information which can be spoken out loud in 2 seconds. Witnesses to a real-life violent crime such as a gun shooting were found to have remarkable memories of the stressful situation even after observing the gunman be killed. Participants had to learn a list of word until they could remember with 100% accuracy. events should be recalled in a different chronological order, done to prevent people reporting their expectations of how the event must have happened, it also prevents dishonesty. AQA A Level psychology past papers can be found on this dedicated page. For example, a word which is seen (in a book) may be stored if it is changed (encoded) into a sound or a meaning (i.e. The group of students are not representative of the wide age ranges in the population and therefore the sample lacks population validity as the results gained may only be representative of that particular age range being affected by the cognitive interview. This may be explained due to highly motivated participants displaying demand characteristics that may not be indicative of real witnesses. Also the level of engagement from participants when under the influence of alcohol may not necessarily be genuine due to the way it affects peoples willingness to give honest responses. In this model, STM is an active processor (working memory) which the “Central Executive” (CE) “attends to and works on” either speech-based information received from the articulatory-phonological loop or visually coded information received from the Visuospatial sketchpad. the capital of France is Paris. Procedural memory is a skill-based memory and focused on recalling how to do something i.e. Description AQA Psychology Memory quiz for AS. If a cue aids retrieval then it could be argued to have been encoded in the memory however if it does not then it could be argued that it wasn’t encoded in memory as a cue. This highlighted the difference in short-term memory and long-term memory, supporting the theory. Many studies into retrieval failure due to cue dependent forgetting are based in the laboratory and lack ecological validity and mundane realism as they are not indicative of real-world environments or situations of forgetting. The results found that 71% of witnesses who had discussed the event went on to mistakenly recall items acquired during their discussion. It suggested that that the STM has a short duration (18 seconds at most), Research on duration of LTM ( Bahrick et al). Procedural memories are usually learnt through repetition and practice. The Central Executive is the main component and coordinates the other “slave systems” and ensures they don’t go astray. Fully updated for the summer 2020 term. Rate 5 stars Rate 4 stars Rate 3 stars Rate 2 stars Rate 1 star . This provides support for state-dependent failure as an explanation for forgetting. Features of each store: coding, capacity and duration. AQA Psychology for A Level Year 2 - Student Book C. Flanagan, D. Berry. These setups lack ecological validity and also mundane realism as the tasks are rarely indicative of what people would experience in real-life situations. Forster et al found supporting evidence for this in one study where participants who thought they were watching a real-life robbery and believed their responses would have an impact on an upcoming trial actually be more accurate in their recall. This lacks ecological validity due to the artificial settings and therefore external reliability to real-world situations as results may differ. However, trying to distinguish whether a person felt anxiety or stress in itself would be difficult and subjective. A Level AQA Psychology Past Papers. They concluded that witnessing stressful situations in real life will be far more stressful than observing a film and memory accuracy may well be more affected in real life with poorer recall. Research on duration of STM (peterson and peterson), student was given a consonant syllable (aka trigram, such as YCG) to remember, and was also given a 3-diget number. [1 mark] 0 3 . A weakness with this study is it is based on a single individual, therefore, making it difficult to generalise the findings to the wider population as deficits in memory may be unique to this one person. The working memory model replaced the idea of a unitary Short-term memory store (STM) and suggested a system involving multiple stores consisting of active processing and short-term storage of information. Study Flashcards On AQA Psychology, Memory at Cram.com. AS Paper 2. The practical application here is that establishing eyewitnesses level of arousal/anxiety may be key in court evidence to determine the validity of their account. This resulted in the inclusion of elaborative rehearsal in the revised multi-store memory model and highlights the overly simplified nature of the model. 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